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Press release

A Menu For Change – Sustainable Eating For All

New BIT report takes in-depth look at the behavioural science of our food choices and eating habits and presents specific proposals to help people eat more sustainably

30th Jan 2020

LONDON, 30 JANUARY 2020 – The Behavioural Insights Team has today released A Menu for Change, a landmark report that takes a detailed and comprehensive look at how diets and food can be made more sustainable on a global basis. 

A Menu for Change represents one of the most ambitious and thorough pieces of analysis on the issue of how to improve the sustainability of diets. It looks into the historical precedents for widespread diet shifts and the latest emerging trends as well as examining likely political sensitivities and how to build public trust and consent.

Climate change and biodiversity loss are now well understood as huge international challenges. The substantial environmental benefits that more sustainable diets and eating habits, in particular reducing consumption of red meat and dairy products, can deliver, are becoming a much more important area of public awareness and policy focus.

Just last week the Committee on Climate Change, the UK’s statutory body that gives independent advice to government on climate change, published its first ever comprehensive advice on UK agricultural policies. The report, ‘Land use: Polices for a Net Zero UK’, set out a number of ways to reduce carbon emissions in the UK in the sector, including by reducing “consumption of the most carbon-intensive foods”, specifically by cutting “the consumption of beef, lamb and dairy by at least 20% per person, well within current healthy eating guidelines.”

In addition the UK’s recent Agriculture and Environment Bills provide new opportunities and catalysts to put the UK at the forefront of sustainable food production and consumption and lead international innovation in this crucial area.

A Menu for Change has a series of specific and actionable steps, grounded in behavioural science, that governments, the food and other relevant industries plus civil society can take right now to transform food policy and encourage the adoption of more sustainable diets.

The recommendations are:

Governments should:

  • Develop supermarket environmental performance ratings to nudge consumers towards sustainable retailers, leveraging the competition between retailers to drive higher environmental standards across the sector.
  • Lead by example by removing or reducing unsustainable foods from public canteens in hospitals, schools and government offices, etc. and using these locations to innovate sustainable nudges.
  • Build a mandate by raising awareness about the environmental issues of food, and develop practical cooking skills for plant-based dishes through school and technical college curriculums.
  • Incentivise product innovation and reformulation, for example by exploring the impact of a supplier-facing carbon tax on foods with the highest environmental footprint.

Industry should:

  • Make plant-based food more available and more prominent in supermarkets, on menus and in canteens.
  • Make plant-based food the default choice, for example at catered events or on flights.
  • Market plant-based food as delicious, normal, and satisfying, avoiding terms like ‘meat free’ which only exacerbate perceptions that plant-based food is lacking.
  • Use novel in-store promotions such as meal deals and retailers’ existing loyalty card schemes to create behaviourally-informed games and social platforms that support healthy and sustainable eating.
  • Rebrand plant-based food towards a mainstream identity, including a ‘masculinity makeover’ to address any perceptions of femininity and weakness.
  • Test placing plant-based options, such as veggie burgers and soy milk, side-by-side with their meat counterparts, rather than separating them on menus, in supermarket aisles and in canteens.
  • Prompt easy substitutions to more sustainable products during check-out on online grocery stores.

Civil society should:

  • Target campaigns at key timely moments when habits are disrupted or not yet set, such as when starting university, moving home, or buying a new kitchen or cookware.
  • Campaign with pride, positivity, and pragmatism rather than guilt and idealism.
  • Leverage social influence by widely publicising the shifting trend towards plant-based food.
  • Reduce the complexity of sustainable eating by promoting clear rules of thumb, such as “red meat’s a treat”.

Toby Park, Head of Energy and Sustainability at BIT and the lead author of A Menu for Change, said: “Governments, industry and consumers around the world are more aware than ever of the need to live within our planet’s means. This includes taking a hard look at the way we produce and eat food – and whilst some of the solutions will come from technical advancements, there is huge potential (and need) to reduce our environmental impacts with some simple behaviour changes. This report leads the way in turning this ambition into concrete policy and strategy for governments, businesses and civil society.”

The full report is available here:

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About the Behavioural Insights Team

The Behavioural Insights Team (BIT) is the world’s leading behavioural science consultancy, working around the world to improve people’s lives.  

Through its teams in the UK, US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore, BIT works in partnership with governments, local authorities, businesses and NGOs in over 30 countries, often using simple changes to tackle major policy problems and deliver improved public services and social outcomes.

BIT was established by the UK government in 2010 and in 2014 became an independent social purpose company, owned by the Cabinet Office, innovation charity Nesta, and BIT employees.

For more information on our work and our team visit and follow us on Twitter, Instagram, YouTube and LinkedIn.

For further information contact:

Richard O’Brien, Behavioural Insights Team,, +44 7768 938209

Aisling Colclough, Behavioural Insights Team,, +44 77460 061776

Download the report